Researchers and their affiliations:

Ismi Dwi Astuti Nurhaeni, Sri Kusumo Habsari, Siany Indria Listyasari  Center for Gender Research and Development-Research and Community Service Institute, Sebelas Maret University

Researcher contact details:
Lead researcher’s contact details:
Ismi Dwi Astuti Nurhaeni

Organization address:
Center for Gender Research and Development-Research and Community Service Institute, Sebelas Maret University
Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan-Surakarta-Central Java-Indonesia.
Telephone Number: (+62) 08122623959
Email: ismi_uns@yahoo.com

Type of research: Policy research

Context:
National commitment to create gender equality in development has been regulated in President Instruction No. 9 Year 2000 on Gender Mainstreaming in National Development, The Ministry Decree of International Affair declare the regulation No. 15 year 2008 on guidelines to implement gender mainstreaming for Local Government and Mid-term National Development Plan (RPJMN) of 2010-2014. In the context of gender equity, the priority in socio-cultural and religious development is the increase of gender equality and gender mainstreaming with one of the main points is the quality of human resources which can be seen from Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender-related Development Index (GDI). Although some policies to apply gender equality have been regulated, gender discrimination still exists, therefore to fasten the realization of gender equality and gender equity in various development field, the Government of Central Java tried out the gender responsive budget (GRB) in 15 Local Government Working Unit in 2011.

Research aims/objectives:
This research examined the Local Government Working Unit readiness in the
implementation of governor regulation of gender responsive budgeting and the factors influencing the Local Government Working Unit’s capability to implement gender responsive budgeting.

Method/Research methodology:
Qualitative methods were used in this research. Research location is in Central Java Province. Research unit analysis is Local Government Working Unit: education, health, and water resources management institution in Central Java Province. Recruitment of participants was done through purposive sampling. Individuals who understood and were responsible in the process of gender responsive budgeting (GRB) implementation, both
individuals from board driver of GRB implemetation (education, health, and water resources management government institution) and from board which drive the GRB implementation (The board of local development planning, The board of gender empowerment, child protection and family planning and finance institution) were regarded unit of analysis. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were held and included end-users and relevant stakeholders such as The agency of gender empowerment, child protection and family planning, Local Government Planning Agency, Finance Bureau and also three GRB implementers of Local Government Working Unit, which are education, health, and water resources management local institution in Central Java Province. In addition, literature study was also undertaken and a workshop was also held to formulate policy recommendation.

Key research findings:
The result of the study shows that The Local Government Working Unit readiness in the implementation of governor regulation of gender responsive budgeting has not yet been optimal. There are some key issues which needed attention were:
Issue 1:
The Governor’s circular on the preparation of budgeting work plan of Local Government Working Unit is limited in term of method on how to do GRB.
Policy implication/s:
Unless there are clear terms of reference it will be difficult for Local Government Working Unit to undertake GRB. Since the Governor’s circular will end it term in 2011 and new one is yet to be issued, there was probability of discontinuation of this effort.
Policy options/recommendations:
Establish gender responsive budgeting technical assistance team to develop
guidelines for gender responsive budgeting in the level of government of Central Java; Issuance of Governor’s Regulation on Technical Guidelines for Gender Responsive Budgeting in Central Java Governmental.

Issue 2:
Limited capacity of human resources particularly at the middle and top managers level related to gender budgeting and high rate of higher rank staff rotation makes it difficult to sustain GRB.

Policy implication/s:
The capacity of human resources in the middle and top managers level in mastering gender issues in accordance with the core of business of Local Government Working Unit is a must for gender responsive programming and budgeting. They have to take responsibility for program initiative in order to get the approval from the Budgeting Team. High rate of middle and top managers rotation should be accompanied with strategy to ensure awareness and comprehension on GRB are maintained.

Policy options/recommendations:
The Agency for gender empowerment, child protection and family planning, Local Government Planning Agency and Finance Bureau need to respond to these limitations and obstacles and drive efforts continuing promotion of gender budgeting. Local Government Planning Agency should chair the Gender Mainstreaming Working Group to drive and intensify of GRB application within each local government working unit as stipulated in Ministry of Interior Regulation no. 15 of 2008 on guidlelines for the implementation of gender mainstreaming in regional government.
Governor’s Regulation is needed for establishment of gender focal point within each government agency with minimum of Echelon III rank officer as focal point. Central Java Governor’s Decree on the establishment of Gender Mainstreaming Working Group should be renewed according to the changes of the government agency members and should be informed to the concerned members. The transfer of the member officials may take place at anytime , but the working group should sustain.

Issue 3:
Lack of availability of sex disaggregated data and updated data base within the development area of responsibility in each Local Government Working Unit.

Policy implication/s
The availability of sex disaggregated data is an obligation for an effective and ontarget development program. The current modality of budgeting is called
performance based budgeting. In the context of gender mainstreaming, budgeting is adopted to be Gender Responsive Budgeting in which development programs take into consideration the equity aspect in access, participation, control and benefits of development for both men and women. The data processing, sex disaggregated in particular is a complex issue. It requires support from the decision makers, comprehensive and synergic approaches with various internal units of Local Government Working Unit.

Policy options/recommendations:
It is recommended that Provincial government issue a system to be applied in all government working units which enable gender responsive data collection, analysis and presentation is done and used in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development programs. Capacity building through assistance for each Local Government Working Unit to understand the importance of sex disaggregated, method of analysis and how it is used needs to be done accordingly.

Issue 4:
Capacity of Gender Focal Point(GFP) of each Local Government Working Unit in undertaking GRB was limited. Gender Focal Point, due to their lower position and rank had limited authority to mobilize other sections in their unit to undertake gender responsive budgeting.

Policy implication/s
The capacity of GFP in every Local Government Working Unit is to be upgraded to allow gender responsive development program be formulated. They are expected to serve as motivator for the unit as well as initiator for GRB, however their position was not high enough to influence and mobilize other section or division within their unit to conduct gender responsive programming and budgeting. When GFP was of higher rank and position, they could not involve actively in the process as they are occupied by other work. Therefore there is a need for more effective roles of GFP.

Policy options/recommendations:
Technical training is required for GFP to enable them carry out what they are
expected to do and serve in the context of gender mainstreaming implementation structure at province level; With the assistance from Planning Agency, Local Government Working Unit develop gender responsive five year plan including how budgeting is formulated to ensure it

is responsive to gender issues. This modality will have integrated gender equity into longer term plan and it needs less program and activities formulation on annual basis. Governor to issue regulation for Local Government Working Unit to assign at the least one person of every program to be responsible for integration of gender equity into the program;  The networking between local government of province level and Gender Studies
Center and the NGO is recommended. They can serve as technical support and assist in the evaluation of gender responsive budgeting.

Issue 5:
The needs of Local Government Working Unit for gender analysis guidelines.

Policy implication/s:
The unavailability of gender analysis guidelines created difficulties for Local
Government Working Unit in formulating Gender Responsive Program and Budget. Monitoring and evaluation tools was not yet available and this has made supervision by government inspector and gender mainstreaming could not be done optimally.

Policy options/recommendations:
Issue the Decree for development of gender analysis guidelines in which agency for gender empowerment, child protection and family planning serves as leading agency; Prepare gender analysis guidelines with the active involvement of the whole relevant stakeholders; Issue Governor’s Regulation on the use of gender analysis guidelines for the Local Government Working Unit in formulation of gender responsive program and budget.

Issue 6:
The roles of supervision unit of local government in internal monitoring to Local Government Working Unit needs to be improved.

Policy implication/s
The role of supervision unit in internal monitoring to every Local Government Working Unit is a requirement for effective and on-target development program. The limited capacity of supervision unit on gender related approaches and the absence of guidelines for monitoring and evaluation prevent Gender Responsive Budgeting from optimal achievement.

Policy options/recommendations:
Include supervision division in capacity building program particularly to obtain comprehend gender equity concept, gender analysis technique and formulation of gender budget statement. Develop monitoring and evaluation guidelines for supervision unit to enable internal monitoring can be done to support the implementation of gender responsive budgeting among government agencies.

Source: Proceeding Symposium on Policy Research on Gender Mainstreaming, Women Empowerment and Child Protection
Jakarta, 16-17 March 2011
. Published by Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, 2011. ISBN: 978-979-3247-59-5.